UPSC Prelims 2023
Prelims General Studies Paper - 1
Jun 08, 2023
3 min read
Consider the following dynasties:
How many of the above dynasties established their kingdoms in early eighth century AD?
A. Only one
B. Only two
C. Only three
The correct answe is D. None
The Hoysala Empire, originating from Karnataka in the Indian subcontinent, ruled over the region between the 10th and 14th centuries. Initially centered in Belur and later moved to Halebidu, the Hoysalas expanded their territory by annexing parts of present-day Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Eventually, they governed most of Karnataka, northwestern Tamil Nadu, and parts of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. The Hoysala era was notable for its contributions to South Indian art, architecture, and literature. Their architectural marvels, including temples like Chennakeshava, Hoysaleswara, and Chennakesava, showcase intricate sculptures. The Hoysalas also fostered literature in Kannada and Sanskrit, contributing to the flourishing cultural heritage of the region.
The Gahadavala dynasty, also known as the Gahadavalas of Kannauj, was a Rajput dynasty that ruled parts of present-day Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in India during the 11th and 12th centuries. They had their capital in Banaras (Varanasi) and briefly controlled Kannauj. Chandradeva, the first ruler of the dynasty, established an independent kingdom after the decline of the Kalachuri power. The dynasty reached its peak under Govindachandra, who expanded the kingdom, defended against Ghaznavid raids, and fought against the Palas. However, the dynasty's imperial power came to an end in 1194 when Jayachandra, Govindachandra's grandson, was defeated by the Ghurids. The Gahadavala dynasty ceased to exist when Jayachandra's successors were defeated by the Delhi Sultanate's Mamluk dynasty under Iltutmish.
The Kakatiya dynasty, a Telugu dynasty, ruled over the eastern Deccan region of present-day India from the 12th to the 14th centuries. Their territory encompassed Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, parts of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Odisha. Orugallu, now known as Warangal, served as their capital. Initially, they were subordinate to the Rashtrakutas and Western Chalukyas before gaining sovereignty under Prataparudra I in 1163 CE. Under Ganapati Deva and Rudrama Devi, the Kakatiyas expanded their lands and successfully defended against invasions. However, they faced defeat against the Delhi Sultanate in the early 14th century. The Kakatiya era witnessed cultural unity, construction of reservoirs for irrigation, and the development of distinctive architecture. Notable examples include the Thousand Pillar Temple, Ramappa Temple, Warangal Fort, Golconda Fort, and Kota Gullu.
The Seuna or Yadavas of Devagiri was a medieval Indian dynasty that ruled over a kingdom in the Deccan region. Their territory extended from the Narmada river in the north to the Tungabhadra river in the south, including present-day Maharashtra, North Karnataka, and parts of Madhya Pradesh. Initially, they were feudatories of the Western Chalukyas but later declared independence under Bhillama V. The Yadava kingdom reached its peak under Simhana II but was eventually annexed by the Khalji dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate in 1308 CE.
Therefore, none of these dynasties were established in the early eighth century AD.
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