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UPSC Mains 2022

Naxalism is a social, economic and developmental issue manifesting as a violent internal security threat. In this context, discuss the emerging issues suggest a multilayered strategy to tackle the menace of Naxalism.

General Studies Paper - 3, Topic: Internal Security Challenges

Jan 03, 2023

3 min read

Naxalism is a term used to describe a violent left-wing insurgency movement in India that seeks to overthrow the government and establish a socialist state. The movement is rooted in issues of social, economic, and developmental inequality, and has been active in India for more than 50 years.


Over the years, the menace of Naxalism has evolved and new issues have emerged that need to be addressed in order to effectively tackle the threat. Some of these emerging issues include:




1. The increasing use of technology by Naxalites: In recent years, Naxalites have been using technology such as satellite phones, drones, and social media to coordinate and carry out attacks. This has made it more difficult for the government to track and disrupt their activities.


2. The involvement of foreign groups: There have been reports of foreign groups, such as the Maoist Communist Party of Nepal, providing funding and support to Naxalites in India. This adds an international dimension to the threat and complicates efforts to counter it.


3. The involvement of women: Women have traditionally played a minor role in the Naxalite movement, but there are signs that this is changing. More women are now joining the movement and taking on leadership roles, which presents new challenges for the government.


To effectively tackle the menace of Naxalism, a multilayered strategy is needed that addresses both the underlying causes of the movement and the immediate threat it poses. Some key elements of such a strategy might include:


1. Development and economic initiatives: Addressing issues of poverty and inequality in Naxalite-affected areas can help to address the root causes of the movement. This could include initiatives such as job training, education, and infrastructure development.


2. Law enforcement and counter-insurgency measures: To disrupt the activities of Naxalites and protect civilians, it is necessary to have a strong law enforcement and counter-insurgency presence in Naxalite-affected areas. This could include measures such as intelligence gathering, patrols, and targeted operations against key leaders.


3. Political engagement and reconciliation: Engaging with Naxalite leaders and working towards a peaceful resolution of the conflict can help to reduce the threat posed by the movement. This could include initiatives such as peace talks, rehabilitation programs, and community engagement.


Overall, a multifaceted approach that addresses both the underlying causes of Naxalism and the immediate threat it poses is needed to effectively tackle this complex issue.

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