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Parambikulam Tiger Reserve - UPSC Current Affairs

Parambikulam Tiger Reserve is a protected wildlife sanctuary located in the Western Ghats of India. It is home to a variety of flora and fauna, including tigers, elephants, leopards, and sambar deer. The reserve offers opportunities for wildlife safaris, birdwatching, and trekking.

Apr 06, 2023

3 min read

Parambikulam Tiger Reserve is a 643.66 square kilometers protected area in Palakkad and Thrissur districts of Kerala, South India. It includes the former Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, which was established in part in 1973 and 1984. The sanctuary is located between Longitude: 76° 35’- 76° 50’ E, and Latitude: 10° 20’ – 10° 26’ N, and is bordered by Nemmara Forest Division to the north, Vazhachal Forest Division to the south, and Chalakudy Forest Division to the west. It has a rich diversity of animal life, including 39 mammal species, 16 amphibian species, 268 bird species, 61 reptile species, 47 fish species, 1,049 insect species, and 221 butterfly species. Parambikulam Tiger Reserve is also home to four different tribes of indigenous peoples, including the Kadar, Malasar, Muduvar, and Mala Malasar, settled in six colonies.




The sanctuary has a hornblende, biotite, gneiss, and charnockite geology, and its altitude ranges between 300 meters and 1,438 meters. The sanctuary has three man-made reservoirs, Parambikulam, Thunacadavu (Thunakkadavu), and Peruvaripallam, with a combined area of 20.66 km2, and seven major valleys and three major rivers, the Parambikulam, the Sholayar, and the Thekkedy. The Karappara river and Kuriarkutty river also drain the area.


Parambikulam Tiger Reserve implements the Project Tiger scheme along with various other programs of the Government of India and the Government of Kerala. The operational aspects of administering a tiger reserve follow the scheme laid down by the National Tiger Conservation Authority. People from tribal colonies inside the reserve are engaged as guides for treks and safaris and are provided employment through various eco-tourism initiatives. Parambikulam Tiger Reserve is among the top ten best-managed tiger reserves in India and hosts many capacity building training programs conducted by Parambikulam Tiger Conservation Foundation in association with various organizations.


The sanctuary has a rich diversity of animal life, including mammals such as lion-tailed macaques, Nilgiri tahr, elephants, Bengal tigers, Indian leopards, wild boar, dhole, sambar, bonnet macaques, Nilgiri langurs, sloth bears, Nilgiri marten, small Travancore flying squirrel, and gaur. Reptiles include the king cobra, Kerala shieldtail, Travancore kukri snake, Travancore wolf snake, Cochin cane turtle, Travancore tortoise, Indian day gecko, and Western Ghats flying lizard, among others. Birds such as lesser adjutant stork, grey-headed fish-eagle, Peninsular bay owl, broad-billed roller, great pied hornbill, and 268 other species have also been recorded in the sanctuary. Forty-seven fish species have been recorded in the sanctuary, of which seven species are listed as endangered, and 17 are endemic to Western Ghats.


In conclusion, the Parambikulam Tiger Reserve is a unique protected area that has a rich diversity of animal life and is home to four different tribes of indigenous peoples. It is among the top ten best-managed tiger reserves in India and hosts many capacity building training programs for wildlife conservation. The reserve's beauty and wildlife diversity make it an important tourist destination in India.

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