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Current Affairs 2023

POCSO Act - UPSC Current Affairs

The Protection of Children Against Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act in India is a comprehensive legal framework that prioritizes child protection, providing measures to combat child sexual abuse and ensure justice for victims.

Jun 19, 2023

3 min read

Child sexual abuse is a grave issue that demands comprehensive legal measures to safeguard children. In India, the Protection of Children Against Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, enacted in 2012, is a significant step towards ensuring the protection and justice for young victims.




India's Parliament passed the POCSO Act in May 2012 to combat child sexual abuse effectively. With child-friendly reporting, evidence recording, investigation, and speedy trials, the act prioritizes the well-being of children and creates a robust legal framework to address offenses such as sexual assault, harassment, and pornography involving children.


The POCSO Act recognizes various forms of sexual offenses, going beyond penile-vaginal penetration. It includes acts of penetration, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and child pornography. The act also considers acts committed by children themselves and ensures gender-neutral provisions for both victims and offenders.


One of the key aspects of the POCSO Act is its emphasis on a child-friendly legal process. It aims to make the trial less daunting for children by implementing procedural reforms. However, some critics argue that certain provisions of the act inadvertently criminalize consensual sexual activity between adolescents below the age of 18.


Under the Juvenile Justice Act, a sexually abused child is considered a "child in need of care and protection." It is essential for police officers to inform the Child Welfare Committee about such cases promptly. The committee can appoint a support person for the child, ensuring their well-being throughout the legal proceedings.


The POCSO Act faces several challenges in its implementation. The definition of a child based solely on chronological age fails to account for individuals with intellectual and psycho-social disabilities. Additionally, contradictions with the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act and mandatory reporting requirements have raised concerns among child rights and women's rights organizations.


While the POCSO Act allows victims to access legal aid, the extent of representation is limited by the Code of Criminal Procedure. The interests of the victim often remain unrepresented, highlighting the need for improvements in legal aid provisions.


The law's presumption that all sexual acts with individuals under 18 are offenses has led to the unintended criminalization of consensual relationships between adolescents. This has particularly affected relationships across different castes or religions, as some parents have misused the act to penalize relationships they disapprove of.


The POCSO Act is a significant milestone in protecting children from sexual offenses in India. While it provides crucial legal provisions for victims, there is a need for continuous evaluation and improvement to address concerns raised by various stakeholders. Ensuring the well-being and safety of children remains a collective responsibility, and the POCSO Act plays a pivotal role in achieving that goal.

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